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Junker Inhaler
Murphy's Inhaler
Clover's Inhaler
Anaesthetic Ether Bottle

Chloroform & Morphine Phial

Ether "Drop" Bottle

Anaesthetic Mask

Anaesthetic Mask

Anaesthetic Mask
Schimmelbusch Mask
Anaesthetic Mask
Anaesthetic Mask
Anaesthetic Mask
Anaesthetic Mask
Chloroform & Morphine Bottle
Aether Nitrate Bottle
Chloroform Bottle
Choryl Anaesthetic
Skinner's Mask (Box)
Junker Inhaler
Junker Inhaler
Chloroform Bottle
Drop Bottle
Chloroform Water Bottle
Spirit of Chloroform Bottle
Lister's Formaldehyde Fumigator
Lister Style Dressing
Carbolic Gauze
Packet of Fuller's Earth
Carbolic Ligatures
Bottle Liq Cresol Sapon
Carbolic Acid
Carbolic Spray
Bottle of Phenol




Junker Inhaler

c. 1880

Junker's Chloroform Inhaler, made by Krohne and Seseman, London.

A clear glass bottle with two outlet taps, ending in a calico covered hood mask and a figure of eight shaped rubber hand pump bellows. The calico is likely to be a later addition to the mask.

Ferdinand Ethelbert Junker, originally of Vienna, came to the Samaritan Free Hospital, London where, in 1867, he designed this apparatus. It was originally used for inhalation of bichloride of methylene. This agent was found to be a mechanical mixture of chloroform and methyl alchohol, and had been introduced by Benjamin Ward Richardson. It was used with the Inhaler at the Samaritan Hospital for over twenty years. Junker wrote "fresh air is driven (by hand-bellows) through the liquid itself". This specimen is in the original form, though of considerable later date than the original. Later modifications (e.g. by Sir Frederick Hewitt, 1893) prevented the coupling of the tubes the wrong way round, a mistake which caused several fatalities. (Ref. Medical Times London, (1867) ii, 59 (1868) i. 171 Duncum B.M. The development of Inhalation Anaesthesia, 1947. p. 264 et seq.)



Murphy's Inhaler

19th Century

Small bronze coloured metal container with circular lid with loop and extending flared mouthpiece with a small matching plug closure. Pink fabric with stitching lines borders the lip of the opening for the mouth.

Hand held chloroform Inhaler which enclosed the mouth only while leaving the nose uncovered. One of the many designs of chloroform inhaler used in the 19th Century. Has two chambers with adjustable valves. The circular chloroform container is separated from the mouth-piece by one tin plate valve which allowed chloroform vapour air to be inhaled. The expired air passed through an opening in the upper part of the mouth-piece.

Loaned by The Wellcome Institute, London



Clover's Inhaler


Clover's Portable Inhaler made by Hayer & Netley, London. A triangular black rubber face mask, attached to one side of the central silver metal drum body, with (flattened) black rubber elliptical bag attached to the other side.

Only the metal chamber is original. Adjustable baffle to allow inhalation. Mouth piece and bellows are not contemporary. Thomas Clover (d. 1882) took over the mantle of John Snow as leader of anaesthesia in the country, upon the death of the latter in 1854. This famous piece of apparatus (which Clover himself did not care for) continued in use, with modifications, until the 1930s. This is a simple "draw-over" apparatus, the body being rotated on the internal tube to allow respiration over the liquid through ports separated by a baffle. No air was admitted till cyanosis occurred. (Ref. Brit Med Journal. (1877) i. 69 Duncum B.W. See: The development of Inhalation Anaesthesia. 1947 p 344.)



Anaesthetic Ether Bottle

Brown glass shop round with printed label, for anaesthetic ether. Made by Duncan, Flockhart & Co. Ltd.

Donation (1990:228)


Chloroform & Morphine Phial

Early 20th century

Metal tube case with a detachable lid containing a glass tube with cork closure and labelled as containing Chloroform & Morphine.

An item contained within midwife Ethel Williams' Midwifery case. Ethel trained at Guy's Hospital between 1906 and 1910, and items within the case were used at home births. The case and contents were included in the NHS 50 exhibition shown in 1998.

Donated By: Mr Edward Williams




Anaesthetic "Drop" Bottle

Green glass three piece moulded bottle with a rubber closure with two fine curved metal tubes sticking out. Contained Ether.

The tubes extending through the closure are a single forked unit consisting of a short one adjoining to a longer one. The label reads "Poison; for external use only". External is crossed out in faded blue ink and beneath it, in the same faded blue ink is handwritten "as anaesthesia. Ether Pure". "Guy's Hospital SE1" is printed along the bottom of the label. A second label below reads "Highly Inflammable". The fine tubes limit the dropping of the anaesthetic onto the mask. (measurements for chloroform were 1 drop per second).




Anaesthetic Mask

19th Century

Schimmelbusch Anaesthetic Mask made by Med. Supply, London.

Oval metal frame with cross wires. Used for the administration of either chloroform or ether anaesthetic.

Donated By: Royal College of Obstetricians




Anaesthetic Mask


Schimmelbusch Anaesthetic Mask. Oval metal frame hinged to a raised wire section. When cloth is in place over wires it fits over the face as an anaesthetic mask

The mask folds flat to facilitate carriage in a doctor's bag etc. From the collapsed position the cross wires central to the mask are first raised upward. Muslin was then placed between the arms of the hinged frame. The mask was held by the anaesthetist by the extending handle over the patient's mouth and nose. Either ether or chloroform was then dropped from a bottle onto the fabric at a measured pace in a circular motion to induce unconsciousness. Chloroform was dropped at the rate of one drop per second.

Donated By: Dr David Wilkinson




Anaesthetic Mask

c. 1890-1910

Schimmelbusch Mask, made by Down Bros. London

The cross wires were pulled outward from the frame. A wire hinged to the top of the mask behind the frame was then released by a clip. A piece of gauze was placed between the two 'arms'of the mask which was then closed to clip the cloth into tent shape. The extending handle was used by the anaesthetist to hold the mask over the mouth and nose of the patient. Chloroform was then dripped onto the gauze administering the anaesthesia to the patient. Dosage for chloroform was measured by administering one drip per second.




Anaesthetic Mask

Post 1900 Schimmelbusch Anaesthetic Wire-Frame Mask made by Ferris & Co, Bristol .

Two struts attached to frame with four pins fold up to create a tent facepiece and fold flat for storage. Mask is accompanied with a piece of thick gauze/wadding. Wadding is thick, square in shape, with diagonal stitching dividing it.

Donated By: Monica Britton Medical History Collection



Anaesthetic Mask

Solid Metal Anaesthetic Face Mask, c. 1940. Curved, anatomically-shaped mask with connecting tube and metal flaps covering round vents. Used attached to a gas cylinder to administer anaesthesia.

Donated By: Monica Britton Medical History Collection




Anaesthetic Mask

A wire frame mask for delivering anaesthesia in two pieces, hinged at the top, with a clasp at the bottom. Made by Allen & Hanburys, London.

Donated By: Monica Britton Medical History Collection




Anaesthetic Mask

A wire-frame face mask for delivering ether or chloroform, made of two frames hinged at the top with a clasp at the bottom. Made by Dawson & Sons, London.

Donated By: Monica Britton Medical History Collection




Anaesthetic Mask

A wire-frame mask for delivering anaesthesia in two pieces, hinged at the top with a clasp at the bottom

Donated By: Monica Britton Medical History Collection




Bottle: Choloroform & Morphine

Green Glass Squared Poison Shop Round with Matching Rectangular Grip Closure and Etched Label: TR. CHLOROF. ET MORPH. 1885 JJ / IIN, probably dates from 1885.




Squared bottle: Aether

Squared bottle of brown smooth glass, c. 1885. Profile of shop round is narrower at front than the side depth. Has indented white fill text: "Spt. Aether. Nitr." Stopper not removable.

Text is "Spirit of Nitric (A)Ether"




Chloroform Bottle

Pale blue tint glass bottle with ribbing half way around side, c. 1890. Narrow neck and raised rectangular stopper. "Poison" raised in glass around base of neck. Inscription on bottle reads; "CHLOROFORM/ (DUN)CAN'S BLUE L(ABEL)". Made by Duncan, Flockhart & Co., Edinburgh & London and Allen & Hanburys Ltd, Bethnal Green, London.

Loaned By: Dr M. Smith, Penfold collection, Colchester



Anaesthetic bottle

Glass bottle with metal cap, marked Chloryl Anaesthetic, 1957.



Box for Skinner's Mask

Circa 1862-1875

Box for Skinner's Chloroform Mask, made by Down Bros. London. Thick gauge wire mask with folding handle stolen from museum. Black chest shaped box and bespoke calico hood still in collection.

Thomas Skinner, M.D., was born in St. Andrews, was obstetric physician to the Liverpool Dispensary and died in 1906. Prior to the invention of this mask it had been customary to drop chloroform onto a handkerchief, or the corner of a towel, as recommended by James Young Simpson. Skinner was the originator of the technique of dropping anaesthetic onto a mask, an innovation that protected the face of the patient from chemical burns. The mask has a folding handle and was designed to be carried in the top hat, and was the forerunner of the 'open' or 'pullover' masks. Skinner's mask was still listed in medical instrument catalogues up until 1938 when it cost 7/6d. Like John Snow, Skinner studied contemporary issues connected to cholera. In later life he also practised homeopathy and was a co-founder of a contemporary American homeopathic magazine.




Junker Chloroform Inhaler

Water white glass graduated anaesthesia bottle with cap and inner tube, made by The Surgical Manufacturing Company, London, c. 1880s.

Rubber tubing would be attached to curved tubes, one to "bellows", one to mask for use. Ring on back of cap is to hang bottle from lapel to free hands when administering anaesthetic.

Donated By: Caroline Woodley & Mrs Diana Dyke



Junker Chloroform Inhaler

Water white glass anaesthesia bottle with cap and inner tube, c. 1880s. Two tubes curl outwards from cap and have a small open funnel between them. The tubes unify as one tube which passes into bottle.

Anaesthesia is measured by dram measure. Smooth ended tube would have tubing attached to link mask to bottle, other would be rigged to bellows. Ring on back of cap is to hang bottle from lapel to free hands when administering anaesthetic .

Donated By: Caroline Woodley & Diana Dyke




Chloroform Bottle

Small water white glass shop round with matching square grip closure and inset glass covered label: "TINCT: CHLOROF: CO", c. 1920.

Shop round labelled to have contained Tincture of Chloroform Compound.




Anaesthetic Drop Bottle

An amber glass anaesthetic bottle with two rounded ridges on its shoulders and a heart shaped grip on the closure.

The stopper or closure of the bottle allows ether or chloroform to pass out over the top of the neck and down the small snout in drops. The drops are placed onto a Schimmelbusch type face mask in a circular motion. For chloroform, the rate was one drop per second until anaesthesia was achieved.




Shop Round: Aqua Chlorof

Early 20th century brown glass medium size shop round with square stopper. Label recess has paper label inside (no cover) which reads 'Aqua Chlorof'. Stopper is removable. Empty.

Aqua Chlorof = Chloroform water/water of chloroform. Has cross in circle symbol + No'2' raised in base.




Shop Round: Chloroform

19th Century

Large narrow necked clear glass bottle with square grip closure and recessed label Spt: Chlorof. 19th century Shop Round.

SPT: CHLOROF translates as Spirit of Chloroform.






Lister's Formaldehyde Fumigator

Lister's Formaldehyde Fumigator in cardboard box made by Johnson + Johnson, early 20th century. Fake wood effect cardboard box with Lister's Formaldehyde Fumigator' label, containing a tin cylinder with two rows of holes around the circumference.

Label text reads: "Lister's Formaldehyde Fumigator, New type. Rapid Action Small Size, containing 1 ounce Paraformaldehyde (28 grams). For a room not more than 500 cubic feet. Johnson + Johnson, London." Pencilled price on label bottom left corner is 2/- (2 shillings). Patients with smallpox or yellow fever etc would have their houses fumigated and scrubbed using antiseptic. One of the items contained within midwife Ethel Williams' Midwifery case. Ethel trained at Guy's Hospital between 1906 and 1910, and items within the case were used at home births.

Loaned By: Mr Edward Williams


Lac Plaster Dressing

Lac Plaster Dressing. Parchment-like cloth (calico) with curl at top and bottom, inside is coated with shellac and carbolic mixture. Number: 27632 is handwritten in ink on the back. Various surgical dressings were used before the introduction of gauze. For a period Lister used a lac plaster dressing. This comprised 1 part carbolic in 4 parts shellac spread on calico. The surface was coated with copal varnish.



Gauze impregnated with Carbolic Acid. Clear plastic packet containing a beige colour, open weave cloth.

Gauze impregnated with carbolic acid is an example of the 'new' 'post Listerian' sterile dressings.



Fuller's Earth Packet

Fuller's Earth in Paper Decorative Packing with green, brown, orange and white design around rectangular parcel of Fuller's Earth.

Front reads "Specially prepared Fuller's Earth, soothing and antiseptic". Sides both read "For the Nursery"


Catgut Ligatures

Jar Containing Catgut Ligatures in Carbolic Acid, late 19th century. Clear jar with cork closure containing dark orange liquid with a mass of catgut within it.

Before the introduction of antiseptic surgery all ligatures used to tie up blood vessels were left long, and the tails brought out through the wound to allow the inevitable pus to escape to the surface. They were made of waxed silk and sloughed out a few days after the operations. Joseph Lister discovered that ligatures previously steeped in carbolic acid could safely be cut short and left in the patient without development of infection. In 1869 he showed that catgut, treated with carbolic, was absorbed in the patient without morbidity. Since then, catgut had been the most widely used ligature.


Antiseptic Bottle

Clear Glass Square Bodied Bottle Containing Liquid Cresol Sapon.

Clear squared bodied bottle with painted white and red circular label to front. Closure has been plastic/taped over a white and red matching label. Contains brown antiseptic material. Bottle neck is secured with sellophane. Cresol is a type of carbolic and sapon is soap.


Bottle of Carbolic Crystals

Bottle Containing Carbolic Crystals made by Burgoyne, Burbridges & Co, Coleman Street London.

Small squared bottle with glass closure which has been wired on then covered in paper and secured with string. The red ink on cream ground label states it was made by Burgoyne, Burbridges & Co. contains crystals of carbolic.

Burgoyne, Burbridges & Co, Coleman Street London.


Carbolic Spray

Carbolic Spray used at Guy's Hospital, made by Down Bros of St Thomas' St. London, late 19th Century. Domed unit with wooden handle to right. A glass tube leads into a glass jar on the left side. All is contained on the wooden stand. Glass jar is not contemporary.

A carbolic steam spray used at Guy's Hospital by Sir Henry Howse, who was a great advocate of Joseph Lister's 'new' hygeinic practices introduced in the late Nineteenth Century. The carbolic spray was designed to kill bacteria floating in the air and was used for about 20 years after its introduction in 1871. At first worked by hand it soon became steam operated and covered the surgeon, his assistants and the patient with a cloud of carbolised steam. Absorption of the carbolic was common and many surgeons passed black urine as a result (carboluria)

Loaned By: H.A.G. Howse (original loan) passed to loan by son A. J. G.Howse


Phenol Bottle

Bottle - Phenol Burgoyne, or Carbolic Acid. Large brown glass jar with wide ribs and base, "Poisson" impressed on glass and shoulders. Label original. Cork stopper and wide neck.

Loaned By: Mr R Horne, Chief Pharmacist, Guy's Hospital





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